Acuity is a measurement of the eye's ability to see the detail and shape of an object at a specific distance. The measurement is based on the smallest object that can be seen at that distance. People with 20/20 acuity are said to have "normal" vision. This means they can distinguish detail and shape of an object at 20 feet.
No. Children who are legally blind have a great deal of vision. In fact, many children who are legally blind read print at a close distance. Children who are legally blind have an acuity of 20/200 or worse, or a visual field of vision that is reduced to 20 degrees or less in the better eye after corruption. An acuity of 20/200 means that the person sees at a distance of 20 feet what a person with unimpaired vision sees at a distance of 200 feet.
No. Partially sighted children have a visual acuity between 20/70 and 20/200 in the better eye after correction. The child may have less or the same visual acuity in the other eye. However, when he looks at an object with both eyes he see in the partially sighted range.
Nightblindness happens when the eyes have difficulty adjusting to decreased changes in light making it difficult to see at night. Night blindness is usually associated with conditions such as Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) and Usher syndrome.
"Peripheral vision" refers to seeing objects that are out of the direct line of vision. When looking at an object straight ahead, the peripheral vision locates objects that are beside you. A peripheral vision loss means that a person cannot detect color or motion of objects that are in the peripheral fields of vision. Children with peripheral vision loss often bump into objects that are on their sides because they cannot see them.
The child may have a condition called "photophobia." This means that the child is extremely sensitive to light. The condition can be painful. Usually the condition can be controlled by wearing sunglasses and hats when outside and controlling the lighting level while inside. Adding blinds to windows and directing sunlight upward toward the ceiling can control glare from windows.
Cortical blindness (CVI) is a condition that prevents the brain from receiving transmission of images from the eye. This is a neurological condition. The structures of the eye are actually functioning appropriately. The image is transmitted, but the brain cannot interpret it.
The teacher meant that the child has good functional vision. The child does have a visual impairment, but uses residual vision to perform tasks in the most efficient manner possible.Â
An optometrist or ophthalmologist who has been specially trained in the area of low vision does a low vision evaluation. This doctor will prescribe appropriate low vision aids such as magnifiers, computer equipment, telescopes, special glasses, and closed circuit TVs, as well as O&M training.
Very few people are totally blind. Most people who are blind can detect objects at short distances, as well as motion and light.
The vision teacher should complete a functional vision evaluation. This is an informal evaluation that assess how well the child uses her vision in the school as well as the home and community setting. Once the evaluation is complete, the teacher will determine appropriate environmental modifications, which will address the child's needs.
Not necessarily. Georgia requires every school-aged student who is diagnosed with a visual impairment to have a learning media assessment. This assessment will determine the appropriate literacy materials for the child. There are many possible choices, which allow a child to access printed information. These include: large print, regular print with low vision devices, recorded text, and Braille, as well as a combination of these. The decision should be based on the unique needs of the child and may change as time passes.
Â A child with a visual impairment may need preferential seating based on his vision needs. Depending on the degree of vision loss, the student may be provided written notes or adapted materials. Sometimes adjusting the contrast, color, print size, or shape will help the child see the material better.Â Using black bold print on white paper, avoiding yellow chalk on blackboards, and increasing or decreasing the print size depending on the vision impairment may also help. If the student uses Braille, he should be provided Braille copies of all written material in a timely manner. This is particularly important in subjects where examples, diagrams, and maps may be necessary to understand concepts.
Either extend the time or modify the assignment.
Many adaptive devices are available which will not call attention to a child with a visual impairment. Athletic equipment can be purchased in bright florescent colors, and different sizes. There are also many adaptive strategies, which can be implemented into the P.E. Program. Talk with the vision teacher and orientation and mobility specialist.
The font size and screen colors can be changed. A voice output program may be used.
Use a typoscope and be sure that his paper isn't cluttered with extraneous pictures or print. He may also benefit from a reading stand, which will hold the material off the desk and allow for closer viewing.
If the child uses Braille, he will have a device that prints Braille. Such devices include the Perkins Brailler, slate and stylus, and electronic devices. If he uses print, he may use a computer, bold lined paper and markers, or regular paper and pencil.
Remember: Color, Contrast, Space, Time, and Lighting!!! These are the key words to meet the needs of the individual with a visual impairment.