Dissertation Defense – Mahogany L. Swanson
30 Pryor Street Southwest
Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303
A Preliminary Investigation into the Facilitative Role of Positive Affect in the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among African American Female Sexual Assault Survivors
by Mahogany L. Swanson
Sexual assault and the resulting impact within the African American community continues to be an under researched phenomenon (Bryant-Davis, Chung, & Tillman, 2009). Although positive affect was presented as a protective model within the general population (Fredrickson, 1998), empirical research exploring its potential for use within the African American community is sparse. The objective of this study was to investigate the facilitative role of positive affect in the development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) post sexual assault in African American women, within an economically disadvantaged community. A secondary objective of the current paper was to provide preliminary empirical support for the utility of the broaden and build model (Fredrickson, 1998) for use within this community. Thus, this study tested the hypotheses that Positive Affect (PA) would mediate the effects of sexual assault occurring before age 13 (FSC < 13), between ages 14 and 17 (FSC 14-17), and after age 17 (FSC > 17) on PTSD related symptoms (MPSS). Data from 749 African American were analyzed. A bias-corrected bootstrapping analysis revealed that PA mediated the effect of FSC < 13 on MPSS, 95% CI [.418, 1.778]. The indirect effect ofpA accounted for 12.3% of the effect of FSC < 13 on MPSS. A second bias-corrected bootstrapping analysis revealed that PA mediated the effect of FSC 14-17 on MPSS, 95% CI [.671, 2.344). The indirect effect of PA accounted for 14.8% of the effect of FSC 14-17 on MPSS. A third bias-corrected bootstrapping analysis revealed that PA mediated the effect of FSC > 17 on MPSS, 95% CI [.741, 2.568]. The indirect effect of positive affect accounted for 14.0% of the effect of FSC > 17 on MPSS. The results of this study suggest that women who are higher in positive affect are less likely to present with symptoms related to PTSD post sexual assault, while those presenting with lower levels of positive affect are at greater risk for the development of PTSD related symptoms post sexual assault. The results of these analyses appear to be consistent with Fredrickson’s (1998) theory that positive affect enhances psychological resources for the individual.