The Relationship of Mathematics Anxiety, Mathematical Beliefs, and Instructional Practices of Elementary School Teachers
by Pamela T. Hughes
Since the early 1960s, mathematics education researchers have considered the affective domain as an important aspect of teaching and learning mathematics (Mcleod, 1992). The affective domain is comprised of emotions, attitudes, beliefs, opinions, interests, motivation, and values (Goldin, 2002). In the past few decades, researchers have begun to focus on the affective characteristics of mathematics teachers (see, e.g., Mcleod, Austin, Wadlington, & Bitner, 1992; Mcleod, 1992; Philipp, 2007; Raymond, 1997). It is suggested that the affective characteristics may be the missing variable that links teachers’ instructional practices to students’ learning (Ernest, 1989). In addition to teachers’ cognitive characteristics directly influencing student learning, it is also suggested that teachers’ characteristics influence how they teach, which, in tum, influences student learning (Hart, 2002). Two affective variables strongly related to teachers’ instructional practices are mathematics anxiety and mathematical beliefs (see, e.g., Beilock, Guderson, Ramirez, & Levine, 2010; Bush, 1989; Jackson & Leffingwell, 1999; Kelly & Tomhave, 1985). The purpose of this proposed quantitative survey study, therefore, is to explore the relationships among mathematics anxiety, beliefs about the nature of mathematics and teaching, and instructional practices of practicing elementary teachers (n = 300) as they relate to the mathematics reform efforts promoted by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (see, e.g., 1989, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2014). The study will be grounded, theoretically, in Ernest’s social constructivism as a philosophy of mathematics and mathematics teaching and learning (1998) and in his model of relating teachers’ content knowledge. attitudes, instructional beliefs, and instructional practice (1989). The instruments administered during data collection will include the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale: Short Version (Suinn & Winston, 2003), the Teacher Beliefs Survey (Beswick, 2005), and the Teachers’ Practices Survey (2006). Data analysis will consist of descriptive methods as well as correlational analyses.
Healing PTSD with mindfulness: The role of avoidance as a mechanism of action
by Sara Klco
Trauma has the capacity to produce a wide range of symptoms that have a damaging impact on psychological, biological, and social functioning (van der Kolk & McFarlane, 1996). Though several widely used empirically-supported treatments for trauma exist, the literature has identified several concerns with some treatments (e.g. Prolonged Exposure), including increased suicidality, panic attacks, and alcoholic relapse (Pitman et al., 1991 ), high nonresponse rates, and high dropout rates (Jefferys et al., 2013). Others have observed that cognitive-behavioral interventions are frequently effective in reducing specific PTSD symptoms, but often do not address other common reactions to trauma such as emotion dysregulation, interpersonal problems, borderline personality disorder, existential impacts, and complex PTSD (Follette et al. , 2015). Therefore, there is a need for modified, addtional , or adjunctive treatments for trauma symptoms. Mindfulness is emerging as one such treatment, and has a growing base of empirical support. The existing research on mindfulness and trauma is reviewed, and a case example is presented to illustrate the application of mindfulness-based trauma treatment. The current study will examine one potential mechanism behind mindfulness’ efficacy in treating trauma-experiential avoidance. The study hyothesizes that for survivors of trauma, experiential avoidance will partially mediate the relationship between mindfulness and trauma symptoms. The hypothesis will be tested using regression-based mediation analyses. The hope of this project is that by conducting and reviewing mindfulness-based research, clinicians can learn to apply these techniques in safe, ethical, and effective ways, leading their clients towards health, empowerment, and resiliency.
Healing PTSD with mindfulness: The role of avoidance as a mechanism of action
by Sara Klco
Trauma has the capacity to produce a wide range of symptoms that have a damaging impact on psychological, biological, and social functioning (van der Kolk & McFarlane, 1996). Though several widely used empirically-supported treatments for trauma exist, the literature has identified several concerns with some treatments (e.g. Prolonged Exposure), including increased suicidality, panic attacks, and alcoholic relapse (Pitman et al., 1991 ), high nonresponse rates, and high dropout rates (Jefferys et al., 2013). Others have observed that cognitive-behavioral interventions are frequently effective in reducing specific PTSD symptoms, but often do not address other common reactions to trauma such as emotion dysregulation, interpersonal problems, borderline personality disorder, existential impacts, and complex PTSD (Follette et al., 2015). Therefore, there is a need for modified, additional, or adjunctive treatments for trauma symptoms. Mindfulness is emerging as one such treatment, and has a growing base of empirical support. The existing research on mindfulness and trauma is reviewed, and a case example is presented to illustrate the application of mindfulness-based trauma treatment. The current study will examine one potential mechanism behind mindfulness’ efficacy in treating trauma-experiential avoidance. The study hyothesizes that for survivors of trauma. experiential avoidance will partially mediate the relationship between mindfulness and trauma symptoms. The hypothesis will be tested using regression-based mediation analyses. The hope of this project is that by conducting and reviewing mindfulness-based research, clinicians can learn to apply these techniques in safe, ethical, and effective ways, leading their clients towards health, empowerment, and resiliency.
Re-imagining Professional Development: A Study of Teacher Educators’ Integration of a Web Seminar Series as a Component of University-Based Teacher Education
by Christi L. Pace
Internet platforms such as Blackboard Collaborate, Desire2Learn, and Moodie. have revolutionized how educators communicate by creating collaborative opportunities once limited only to the face-to-face settings (King, 2001; LaJoie, Garcia, Berdugo, Marquex, Espindola & Nakamura, 2006). Using computer mediated communication tools, teachers can now participate in quality, ongoing, collaborative, and situated learning. While an abundance of research exists pertaining to teacher professional development, little is known about the use of a web seminar format as a venue for online teacher professional development. Even less is known about teacher educators’ integration of a professional development web seminar as a component of the courses they teach. The purpose of this qualitative study, then, was to understand teacher educators’ use of an open access web seminar whose goal is to disseminate cutting-edge literacy research and improve literacy practices (Global Conversations in Literacy Research) within their language and literacy teacher education courses. This qualitative study sought to answer the following: (a) Why do literacy teacher educators use online professional development web seminars within their courses? (b) How do literacy teacher educators use online professional development web seminars within their courses, especially those presented by Global Conversations in Literacy Research? and (c)What value do literacy teacher educators see in working with the web seminars in their classes, especially those presented by GCLR? This study was ground in critical situated learning, which includes theories of critical literacy (Janks, 2000), situated learning (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989), collaborative learning (Borko, 2004; Brown et. al., 1989; Lave & Wenger, 1991), and legitimate peripheral participation (Brown et. al., 1989). Within an interview study design, the constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Merriam, 2009) was used to analyze data collected from semi-structured interviews and teacher educators’ course syllabi documents.
A Review of Humility Measures and a Test of the Social Bonds Hypothesis
by Stacey McElroy
Less than 10 years ago, the science of humility seemed stuck with intractable measurement problems. However, due to theoretical innovations, measures have proliferated in recent years. In order to avoid fragmentation, humility science faces a critical stage of needing to reconcile and integrate definitions and measures. In Chapter 1, I review 15 measures of humility, including (a) survey measures of general humility, (b) survey measures of humility subdomains, and (c) indirect measures of humility. For each measure, I describe the scale structure, development of items, evidence of reliability, and evidence of construct validity. I also describe and compare the various content areas covered by each measure, and conclude by making recommendations for advancing research on humility. Then in Chapter 2, I will use a multi-method strategy for measuring humility which includes self-report, informant reports, and behavioral coding. This will serve to empirically address the hypothesis described in the literature that self-reports of humility are biased due to modesty effects or social desirability. I will also test the social bonds hypothesis of humility by empirically testing a moderation model of cultural humility in intercultural couples. Specifically, I predict that cultural humility will buffer the effects of culturally-based conflict on relationship satisfaction, trust, and commitment.
Looking at the Past: Eighth Grade Social Studies Teachers and Historical Visual Texts
by Jearl Nix
Teachers in the 21st century are faced with students who are mass consumers of visual texts via social apps on smart devices, media on television, and information in textbooks. Teaching students to analyze and question visual texts may help them construct meaning and critique what they see. Yet, very little is known about teachers’ pedagogical decisions when planning and teaching with visual texts. This study attempted to fill that gap. The purpose of this study was to explore how eighth grade history teachers utilize historical visual texts in their classrooms. Three eighth grade history teachers participated in this study.
Data collection consisted of semi-structured interviews, teacher analyses of visual texts, video recorded lessons, teacher reflections, and analysis for historical thinking and visual literacy components. Data obtained in this study addressed the following questions: How do teachers analyze a historical visual text for use in the classroom? What previous experiences do teachers utilize when planning to teach with a historical visual text? What do teachers’ reflections of a video recorded lesson reveal about the teachers’ instructional experiences with historical visual texts? What do video analyses of teachers utilizing historical visual texts reveal about teachers’ historical thinking and visual literacy pedagogical decisions?
The results of this study indicated that the participants lack formal learning and prior experiences in teaching with historical visual texts. Yet, the participants reported that their lessons in this study were engaging and meaningful for students. Findings from this study suggest that historical visual texts can be effective in the teaching and learning of history.
Bullying in Middle Schools: A Case Study Investigating School Personnel’s Perception of Bullying
by Jennifer Pinkett Smith
Repeated instances of bullying plague our schools and immobilize the learning environment for many students. Dissimilar views of policies related to bullying make it difficult for school personnel to intervene on the victim’s behalf. The purpose of this study is to identify the perceptions that school personnel have about bullying and intervention policies and procedures associated with bullying in their schools. The proposed qualitative case study will examine how policies and practices, as set by school leaders of two private middle schools in the metro Atlanta area impact school personnel’s efforts to intervene in bullying.
The research questions to be addressed are: What are school personnel’s perceptions of policies and procedures as they relate to bullying and how school personnel’s perception of bullying impacts their efforts to intervene? Participants for the study will include middle school principals, counselors and teachers. Data will be collected through interviews, a research journal, and artifacts which include: document and content analysis. Implications for future research may include school-wide policy evaluation and implementation of professional development aimed at bullying intervention. Additionally, schools may consider instituting anti-bullying programs that promote awareness of bullying.
Learning Technologies Division Presentation: Hybridizing Your Course
Presenter: Uzma Bhatti
Hybrid course design is a flavor of blended learning that utilizes both web-based and face-to-face instruction. This workshop will provide a contextual framework for hybrid course design. Some topics that will be covered include content structuring, information consistency and iterative design.
This Learning Technologies Division presentation will be available online on May 15 and the link will be posted here.
L1 and L2 Doctoral Students’ Co-Constriction of Meaning at the Literacy Events of GCLR Web Seminars
by Tuba Angay-Crowder
The real world of discourse, being complex, unpredictable, and dynamic with the diverse communicational channels and media, necessitates that both L 1 and L2 learners learn the multiplicity of texts, and master emerging genres in their disciplines (Cope & Kalantiz, 2000; Molle & Prior, 2008; Tardy, 2008). However, issues arise about how students produce and interpret these texts in a particular sociocultural institutional context, and how they learn the related new, emerging literacies and genres around text production (Hyland, 2000; Lea, 2007; Lea & Jones, 2011; Prior. 1995, 2004). Little is known about how students, particularly the ones in post-secondary education, establish the required intertextual connections among different modes of texts (written, oral, visual etc.) in education (Belcher & Hirvela, 2008; Elbow, 1991; Seloni, 2012; Warren, 2013; Weissberg, 2006).
Therefore, the purpose of my study is to examine howL 1 and L2 doctoral students use intertextual connections as opportunities of creating meaning and significance during the literacy events of Global Conversations and Literacy Research (GCLR) web seminars. Drawing upon microethnographic discourse analysis, more particularly the constructs of intertextuality (Bioome, & Carter, 2013), I investigate the following questions a) How are the L 1 and L2 students engaged in intertextual practices in the literacy events of GCLR web seminars? b) How does the use of intertextuality contribute to L 1 and L2 students’ academic literacies? This study sets out to explain how L 1 and L2 navigate through intertextual connections as they shape the literacy events of the GCLR.
The participants will be attendees of the GCLR web seminars. I will recruit two L 1 and two L2 doctoral students who are actively involved in the web seminar and have different first languages (e.g., Korean, English, Chinese). Data will draw upon interviews, chat transcriptions, and video recordings of the web seminars, and screenshots from the web seminars (visuals). Data collection and analysis, which will be conducted via Nvivo for Mac, will begin in September 2015, and continue through December 2016. Microethnographic discourse analysis will provide how the participants enact critical agency in meaning making, and how this process contributes to their academic literacies at web seminars.